Referencing is the method of acknowledging the information with the sources that have been used to write the assignment or any kind of written work. When an individual is writing an assignment, the person uses someone else’s work or ideas. This calls for including the sources that have been used while writing that piece of work. Referencing can be defined as the procedure of citing the sources of ideas, relevant theories, conceptual frameworks, data, formula and diagrams that have been used for writing the academic paper. Referencing is needed not only to prove authenticity of the writing but also to avoid any kind of plagiarism. It increases the credibility of the -paper since it is reflected that the writer has consulted a number of books or articles at the time of writing his or her paper. It must be mentioned in this respect that referencing should be accurate and a detail record of the several references used is to be kept for easy navigation of the sources used for writing the assignment, essay or any other kinds of writing piece. Failure to reference in an academic paper or inappropriate referencing can be referred as academic misconduct.
Components of Referencing
At the time of academic writing, such as an essay, report or proposal, often we need to include some kinds of quotes or ideas of the author or the writer of the particular piece of writing. In-texting is important because the authenticity of the ideas or the quotes can only be proved when the source of information is given along with the text.
For example: As viewed by Rogers, (2015), there is a difference between military and non-military interventions.
The Libyan government accounted for only 743 killings (Ackerman, 2013).
Any kind of notes that is included at the end of the page is called footnote. Usually any kind of reference or comment is given at the end of the writing piece. Footnote is added in order to refer to the relevant source at the end of the phrase or sentence.
Business ethics is a form of applied ethics that examines the ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that arise in the business environment.
Bibliography and reference list
Bibliography or the reference list includes the details of all the resources that have been used at the time of writing the assignment or the task. It is placed at the end of the writing piece and includes the names of the books, journals or articles used during writing. It should be kept in mind that whatever sources that have been in-texted in the piece of writing must be present in the reference list. The sources we use as in-text, the sources are placed in the reference list while the sources mentioned in the bibliography are not necessarily used as in-text.
Types of referencing
One of the styles of referencing the text is Harvard. There are different elements that are provided in Harvard Referencing Style. These elements mainly include Name of the Author, Title of the book, Title of the Journal, Title of the article, Publisher etc.
The structure of writing the reference for the book with a single author follows the format:
‘Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title of the book. Edition. (the edition is included only in case, if it is not the first edition) Name of the city published: Name of the Publisher, Page(s) number’.
In case, the edition is not available, it is assumed to be the first edition and there remains no need to mention the edition.
One author and first edition: Johnson, P. (2016). Minimum possibility of ride. New York: Little Brown.
One author and not the first edition: Ralf, D. (2015). Maxi and her memorable journey. 5th ed. New York: Knopf.
In case when there are two authors for a single book, the format of the reference is something different. The names of the authors are placed in the order they appear on the source. The prefix ‘and’ is used to connect the names of the two authors.
Chowdhury, M. and Mahes, K. (2012). Testing of the soft wares. Chennai, India: Dorling Kindersley, p. 134.
More than two authors:
Kamat, P., Seebok, N., Justin, T. and Fryberg, F. (2015). Discovering the Universe. Boston: Cengage Learning, pp. 455-457.
The referencing style also differs while citing of a particular chapter in an edited book. In case of an edited book, the edition of the book is always mentioned, even when it is not the first edition. For multiple works done by the same author, the citation is done in the same way that has been mentioned here. The format with examples is given below.
Pressler, M. (2011). My brave girl, Kylie. In: M. Jackson, ed., The The Dogs That We Love, 2nd ed. Boston: Jacobson Ltd., pp. 92-98.
The referencing style is again different in case of a journal. The elements of a standard structure of a journal citation are:
‘Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Journal, Volume (Issue), Page(s)’
Ross, P. (2014). On Truth Content and False Consciousness in Adorno’s Aesthetic Theory. Philosophy of recent time, 60(3), pp. 288-292.
For the journals found in the websites, the structure is:
Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article Title. Journal, [online] Volume (issue), pages, Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year]
Raina, P. (2013). Establishing Correlation Between Non response and Genetic. Journal of Graduate Medicine, [Online] Volume 32(2), p. 150. Available at: http://www.proquest.com/products-services/ProQuest-Research-Library.html [14th May. 2016]
For a newspaper article the structure is:
‘Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Newspaper, Pages(s)’
Weisman, K. (2014). Deal Reached on Fast-Track Authority for Obama on Trade Accord. The New York Times, p.A2.
Referencing style for eBooks and PDFs follows the structure:
‘Last name, First initial. (Year pulished). Title. Edition. [format] City: Publisher, pages(s). Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year]’
Zadak, L. (2014). The Book Thief. 3rd ed. [ebook] New York: Knopf. Available at: http://ebooks.nypl.org/ [Accessed 12 May. 2016]
Reference style for images or videos follows the format:
‘Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title/description. [format] Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year]’
Johanson, P. (2014). DJ Gear. [image] Available at: https://flic.kr?p?fbPxRv [Accessed 17 May. 2016]
Referencing style for government publications, the format is:
‘Government Agency or Last name, First Initial., (Year published), Title of Document or Article. City published: Publisher, Page(s).’
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, (2013). BicycleGA Routes. Harrisburg: PENDOT, p.2.
The in-text of the references can be mentioned here.
In-text for no author: (Lost Diary, 2011)
In-text with no date: (Snipp)
In-text for corporate authors: (Dermatology Foundation, 2012)
In-Text citation for one author: (Gregor 2014)
In-text citation for two or three authors: (Gatsby, Carryway and Nick 2014)
In-text citation for four or more authors: (Porter et al. 2013)
It has to be kept in mind that the reference list has to be arranged in an alphabetical order while making the Harvard reference list.
For more guidance: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NDgqqPvMn0U
Australian Guide to Legal Citation is Australian referencing style used at the time of legal citation. The referencing style consists of Citation in the body of the page. A superscript is used for the same purpose. A list of footnotes is added at the end of each page. The bibliography or the reference list is added by the end of the writing piece. The referencing style has been adopted by majority of Australian Law Library. It is used in all journals, articles and other law related writing piece.
Superscript numbers are used whenever it is required to in-text any kind of citation of books or journals. This is done to show from where the idea or the quotes have been taken from. It must be kept in mind that when citations are repeated, the bibliography is not repeated.
The style or format of the AGCL referencing and citation is a collaborative approach between the Melbourne University Law Review Association and the Melbourne Journal of International Law. Various revisions have been made on the referencing style but the same style has been followed for citing legal writings since the time the style was published for the first time. The reference style is used in various law schools and universities. In fact, it is used by the practitioners as well.
Few examples of AGCL referencing can be stated here:
For cases of reported judgments:
1Chamberlain v R (No 2) (2011)134 CLR 321
1Nydam v The Queen  VR 630
1Australian Competition and Consumer Commission v C G Berbatis Holdings Pty Ltd (2013) CLR 31
1Minister for immigration and Citizenship v SZIAI  HCA 42 (24 May 2010)
Australian Constitutions: 1Australian Constitution s 22.
Statues (Acts of Parliament):
1Criminal Code Act Compilation Act 1930 (WA) s 5 (Criminal Code)
Delegated Legislation (rules, regulations, orders):
1Criminal Procedure Regulations 2005 (WA)
Western Australia, Western Australia Government Gazette, No 40, 29 February 2016, 532
Books with single author:
1Natalie Van der Wardeen, Understanding Employment Law: Concepts and Cases (LexisNexis Butterworths, 2016) 200.
Books with two or three authors:
1Kelly Burton, Thomas Craft and Stella Terrant, Principles of Criminal Law in Queensland and Western Australia (Lawbook, 2012)80-3.
Book with more than three authors:
1Michel Tilbary et al Remedies: Commentary and Material (Thomas Reuters, 4th Ed, 2012) 702-6
Book with no author:
1Cambridge Advanced Learner’s guide (Cambridge University Press, 2013) 632
Book with many volumes:
1E J John and W Zedia, Manual of German Law (Oceanea Publications, 4th revised ed, 1986) vol 1, 96
1Augusto Rozinni, ‘How Judges Undermine the Rules of Laws’ (2012) 12 International Trade and Business Law Review 180, 136
1‘Little Corporate Appeal in the Green Bottom Line’, Business, The Age (Melbourne), 17 May 2014, 6.
Law Reform Commission Reports:
1Australian Law Reform Commission, For Your Information: Australian Privacy Law and Practice, Report No 108 (2010) vol 2, 300 [6.3]
1Jenny Lin, The Criminal Jury Trial in Western Australia (Phd Thesis, University of Western Australia, 2013)
1Law Society of Western Australia, History of the Law Society of Western Australia, <hyttp://www.lawsociety.asn.au/history>
It is to be noted here that the references that have been stated above as examples are used in the same style in the Bibliography. The style of writing has been accepted by a wide range of people in regular practitioners of law and other legal places. It is often asked that why a different referencing style is used for citing references related to law and legal approaches.
For further details, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cr9lwsT05qc can be referred.
Generally OSCOLA referencing is used for legal referencing. The style is used for referring both primary and secondary sources. Primary sources include Cases, Statutes, and Legislation cases and even for human rights related cases. Details of the format used for OSCOLA referencing is given as under:
Reference list for cases: Name of the party is written, and then a neutral citation is given, followed by the Law report citation, written in italics. In such situations, when the cases are not reported, the ER or the WLR are written with the references. This point is very vital, failing to which results in failing of a specialist report. It must also be noted that full stops are not used in the abbreviations. Separation is done with a semi-colon instead.
Example of cases referencing:
Corr v IBC Vehicles Ltd  UKHL 14,  I AC 885 R (Robin) v Parole Board  EWCA Civ 1032,  QB 752 Page v Smith  AC 155 (HL)
In case, if there is no paragraph then the page number is given in the bracket.
Example: Callery v Gray  EWCA Civ 1115, 
In case, citing a particular Judge:
Example: Arscottv The Coal Authority  EWCA Civ 920,  Env LR 6  (Laws LJ)
For referencing Statutes and statutory instruments:
Act of Supremacy 1996 Human Rights Act 1998, s 12(2)(a) Penalties for Disorderly behavior (Amendment of Minimum Age) Order 2014, SI 2014,3624
For referencing EU legislation and cases
Consolidated Version of the Treaty on European Union  OJ C115/15 Council Regulation (EC) 140/2014 on the control of concentration between undertakings (EC Merger Regulation)  OJ L30/2, art 5 Case B-123/04 Commission v Council  ECR I-7895, paras 45-46
For referencing Books:
The name of the author is given in the same form, as it appear in the publication. However, in bibliographies, only the surname followed by the initial of the last name is written. Relevant information is given about the editions, translators and of the publisher as well. The page number is also cited by the end of the citation after closing the brackets.
Example of book referencing: Name of the author or authors, name of the book, Year of first publication in brackets followed by page number.
Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan (First published 1965, Penguin 1985) 270
Garent Johanson, Goff and Jones: The law of reinstitution (1st supplement, 8th edition, Sweet & Maxwell 2012)
K. Weighzt and L. Kobez, An introduction to Companion Law (Tony Weiz tr, 2nd edn, OUP 2014)
For referencing edited books: Name of the author, name of the book, edited year in brackets is given.
Example: Francis Rose, ‘The evolution of the Species in Andrew Burlow and Alan Rodger (eds), Mapping the law’. Essays in Memory of Peter Birks (OUP 2012)
For referencing journal articles: Name of the author is written as it appears in the journal article, name of the theory is included in inverted commas, [date of publishing] page number.
Example: Paul Craige, ‘Pure Theory’ and the values in Public Law  PL 440
HJA Griffith, ‘The Common Law and the Criminal Constitution’ (2013) 155 LPO 45, 52
For referencing online journals: Name of the author, ‘The name of the journal’ (2016) accesses day Mon Year.
Example: Graham Greenleaf, ‘The Global Development for Free Access to Internet Information’ (2011) 1(2) EJLY http://ejly.org//article/view/15 accessed 14 May 2010
For referencing websites: Name of the author, name of the material used from website (The proposed law, day month Year) accessed day Month Year
Sarah Coley, ‘Virtual Friend who Fired Employee’ (Naked Law 12 May 2010) www.nakedlaw.com/2015/03/intext html accessed 15 May 2015
For referencing a Newspaper article: Name of the author, Name of the article, name of the newspaper (Place, day Month Year)
Example: Janet Croig, ‘Supreme Court Warns of Environmental Quality’ New York Times (Washington, 2 June 2016)
It has to be noted here that Oscola referencing is done at the footnote. The formats that have been given in the reference list is directly pasted in the footnote. Places where referencing is required, footnote is inserted in those place. No citation is done at the beginning or the end of the sentences like other types of referencing. In fact, any kind of extra information is also included in the footnote referencing. This increase the interest of the readers and at the same time provides enough information whenever required.
For more details, refer to: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AyX8VjBZ3VM
American Psychological Association or APA style of referencing is the most commonly used referencing style in the social sciences. In recent perspective, 6th Edition of APA referencing has been in use. Different formats used for referencing and in-texting can be discussed here. The reference list of APA format is always made hanging. While writing the name of the book, the name of the publisher, state and country are also included in the reference list. The description with related examples is given below:
For single author:
Last name of author, initial of first name. (Year of publication). Name of the book or journal, page numbers.
Berney, T. K. (2012). Social quality and friendship development. Current direction in the science of Psychology, 12, 7-10.
For two authors:
Last name of the author, initial of the first name. (year of publication). Name of book or journal, page numbers. The name of the two authors are separated by an ampersand and not ‘and’.
Wegner, D. T., & Petty, P. I. (2014). Management of marketing issues. Journal of Personality and Psychological Science, 63, 1034-1039.
For three to seven authors:
The names are written in a list with last name and the first initial and are separated by commas. However, at the time of writing the final name of the author the ampersand sign is used. The year of publication is given in brackets. Name of the book or journal. Page number.
Kernis, L. M., Cornell, P. I., Sunwell, C. Y., Harwol, U.P., Tintas, K. O., Bach, H. S., & Kinder, J. U. (2013). More attention given for stability of self esteem. Journal of Personality and Psychology, 63, 1345-1350
For more than seven authors:
After writing six names in the same format like last name, initial of the first name, ellipses are used to point out that there are more than six authors. The name of the last author is written finally. This time no ampersand is used while writing the name of the last author. The year is given in brackets. The name of the journal is written in italics, followed by the page numbers.
Miller, P.I., Choi, P.L., Tinder, T.G, Thomas, T.E., Rubin, L. T., Harland, O. R., . . . Robin, U. T. (2011). The Herdonic contingency technology. Journal of Personality development, 65, 2013-2020.
For referencing any online sources:
Last name of the author or authors, Initial of the first name. (Year), Name of the book or journal. Retrieved Day in numeral Month, Year, From URL.
Hawkings, T. (2015). Professor Hawking’s website. Retrieved 6 May, 2016, from http://www.hawking.org.uk/
For online sources, the APA format also recommends to provide a Digital Object Identifier or DOI, if it is available, as opposed to the available URL. This approach is made to provide a long lasting link of the online sources. These codes are unique to each documents and are mainly consists of both alpha-numeric characters. In certain cases it is found that the DOI is not available. In those cases, URL is solely used for denoting the exact site for the online source.
Certain things are kept in mind at the time of in-texting the references. For example, at the time of including the name of the author at the beginning of a sentence, the last name of the author is written and the year of the published book or journal is written in brackets. Likewise, when there are two or three authors, last name of the authors are written with the year in the brackets.
For a single author at the beginning of a sentence:
According to Stenberg, (2013), the approach made by people for cognitive behavior.
For single author at the end of the sentence:
The approach made by people for cognitive behavior (Stenberg, 2013).
For two or three authors at the beginning of a sentence:
According to Brisk, Stanley and Monitt, (2014), the approach made for the sake of understanding the situation.
For two or three authors at the end of the sentence:
The approach made for the sake of understanding the situation (Brisk, Stanley & Monitt, 2014).
For more than three authors:
The understanding of approach made by team of management (Stanley et al., 2016)
For citing the website: (Hawkings, 2013)
Unlike Harvard referencing, Available at is not written, instead retrieved from is written. The hanging style of referencing list must not be forgotten. This is a unique style of providing the list of references used while writing the piece of writing.
For more guidance, refer to: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SOEmM5gmTJM
Vancouver referencing style is used in ‘medicine and science’ related writing pieces. This reference style is numbered. The citation in the text of other’s work is indicated by the use of numbers. A numbered reference list is provided at the end of the document that includes the full details of the corresponding in-text references. The rules and guidelines for this referencing style have been proposed by the International committee of Medical Journal Editors. This guideline is now maintained by the U.S. National Library of Medicine. The same method is known as Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts that has been submitted to Biomedical Journals.
It has to be kept in mind that the references are listed in numerical order and in the same order in which the references has been cited in the academic writing. It is recommended that the reference list is to be started in a new page. The reference list must contain all the in-texted references in the reference list. The unpublished articles or journal should never be used. Usually Arabic Numerals are used such as 1,2,3,…. The journal title whose abbreviation is used must be in the format of NLM Catalog. One has to be sure of using all the references that have been used in the text.
The way of citing this reference follows this pattern: Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, name of Editors, and name of the Publishers (Edition number)
Referencing with one author:
Name of the author is given. Name of the book. Name of the city: followed by the name of the publisher; year of publication. Page number with a ‘p’ in the end.
O’Deniel P, Editors. Rethinking of the social epidemiology: towards a better scientific approach. Dordrecht: Springer; 2011. 632 p.
Referencing an e-book:
Name of the author, name of the book, [Internet]. Name of the city: Name of publication; year [cited Year Mon Day]. Page number with a p. Available from: URL DOI
Stokhausen K, Turale P. An exclusive study of the phenomenon of reducing tobacco use. M. Nusen Scholarsh [Internet]. 2012 Mar [cited 2013 Feb 20]; 52(2):63-65. Available from: http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.lib:monash.edu.au/docview/6521235?account id=23214
Referencing for more than three authors:
The first thing to be kept in mind that the last name of the author is not separated by ‘and’ or an ampersand symbol. The names are written continuously separating each name by the means of comma.
Kennagati O, Harris C, Brody T, Flaning PG. The effect of smoking on the ligament of a cartilage surgery in arms and knee: a systematic review. An K Sports Med [Internet]. 2013 Jun [cited 2014 July 20]; 32(13):2365-6. Available from: http//akh.sagepub.com/content/63/23/2545 DOI: 10.1156/0236458515865478
Referencing a television show:
Name of the television show [television broadcast]. Catalyst. Name of the city: name of the channel; year Mon day
Stem cells in the brain [television broadcast]. Catalyst. Sydney: ABC; 2010 Jun 29.
In-text citation of Vancouver referencing:
For in-texting, Vancouver referencing is done by placing the number of the reference by the end of the sentence using number in brackets. It has to be noted here that the number can be placed in any form. It is not necessarily has to be placed in round or square brackets. The same can be done by the means of superscript.
Using round brackets: …as one the authors have said that the darkest part of human life is easily lightened.(1)
Using square brackets: …as one of the authors failed to meet their role in society.
Using superscript: …as one of the authors have said the darkest days are yet to come.1
It is not that only the number of the reference is denoted by the end of the sentence. The page number of the book or journal is sometimes mentioned as well. The same thing can be written in brackets or in superscript form.
Using round brackets: …for those who have not received any kind of sentimental support from the elders.(1 p.53)
Using superscript: …the darkest nights bring the brightest morning.1(p45)
It has to be noted here that while citing the reference number in the form of superscript the page number is written in brackets.
For more than one reference: In case more than one reference has to be cited, the number of the reference list is given separating them by commas.
Example: …as it has to be seen people are not ready to take risk. (1,3,6-8)
For further detail, refer to: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NAGsnDQwfbY
MLA or Modern Language Association referencing style is generally used to reference academic writing for liberal arts and humanities. Recent update of the MLA referencing no longer requires underling the name of the author. The URLs are also not inserted. It is recommended that the writer has to include the web address of the reference used for citing the source. In case when the date of publication is not available the abbreviation n. d. is used. And when the name of the publisher is not available n. p. is written.
For preparing the reference list, the name of the authors are given with the name of the writing piece followed by the name of the city: publisher, year of publication and mention whether it is in print form or is available in the web.
For referencing with one author:
Mumford, Louis. The Culture of the unseen cities. New York: Harcourt, 2011. Print.
For referencing with two or three authors:
Francis, Jones, Richard and Donald. Destination: History of Canada and Regional areas. Toronto: Harcourt, 2013. Print.
For referencing with more than four authors:
Johanson, Natalie et al. Comparative Literature and Cultural Studies 5.2 (2012): 31 pag. Web. 23 May. 2012
For referencing a journal:
name of the author or authors are given. Followed by “name of the journal”. Vol.(year): Web or Print Day Mon. Year
Dussan, Marc and Bruce. “Peer-assistance for reducing stress.” Journal of Educational Administration 32.2 (2013): 5-12. Global. Web. 26 May. 2014
For referencing an article:
Name of the authors. Name of the article. Name of the newspaper day Mon. year, Edition Print.
Seamnak, Susan. “Feeling right at one’s home: Government residence and traditional rules.” Montreal Gazette 27 Jun 2014, 4th Ed.: Print.
For citing an entire web site:
Last name of the author, first name of the author. “Document title.” Title of the overall Web site. Version of the website available. Name of the publisher, publication date. Web. Date of access
Joyce Wielfied. “You cannot read that solution” NBC New York. NBC Universal, 20 Apr. 2012. Web. 29 Apr. 2012
It has to be kept in mind that no Accessed from or Retrieved from is written in the MLA referencing of websites.
For referencing a television show or radio program:
Name of the program that has been telecasted in Television. Name of the authors. Name of the program. Channel name Television. Day Mon. Year. Television
“Scandal of the century.” Narr. Linden. The Fifth Estate. CBC Television. 23 Jun. 2012. Television.
For referencing an art or a photograph:
Cassat, Mother and Child. 2013. Wilchita Art Museum, Wichita. American Painting: 1998-2012. By Johanson Pierce. New York: McGraw, 1998. Slide 23
For referencing Sound recording:
First name of the Singer, last name. “Name of the music”. Name of the album. Year CD or DVD.
Ellington, Duke. “Black and Tan Fantacy.” Music is my life. Musicmasters, 2013 CD
For referencing a review available in both print or online format: Name of the writer. “Name of the article” Rev. of the topic name. Name of the city Name of the paper day Mon. Year: Volume Print or Web
Kirn, Walter. “The Wages of Righteousness.” Rev of Schindler’s List, dir. Stevens Spielberg. New Republic 13 Jun 2015: 40. Print.
For referencing a translated book:
In-texting with one author: Last name of the author is written with the page number of the book. It has to be noted that the name is not separated by comma.
Example: …he then left for his work to meet his childhood friend. (Mubar 425).
In-texting with two or three authors: Names of the authors separated by commas and the number of page or pages.
Example: Book with exactly two authors: (Winks and Laiser 521)
Book with three authors: (Choko, Putin and Bralit 521-523)
In-texting with more than four authors: When there are more than four authors, the names of the first two authors are written and then et al. is written after the two names.
Example: (Baldwin, Richard et al. 2013)
In-text of a website: Name of the website is given, year
Example: (Hinderware.com 2013)
It has to be kept in mind that there is a difference in referencing and in-texting when a particular page of the web is selected and when the complete web is used. In case when a particular page or range of pages is used for reference, the same is mentioned by the means of separating it with commas.
In text of government publication: The name of the authority is written and the year of publication is mentioned.
Example: (Authority of the government 2016)
In text for an art or photograph: Name of the artist is written and then the year of the publication of the piece of art is written.
Example: (Cassatt 1960)
For more information, refer to: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uwPydVmvsk4
Duska R, 'Business Ethics: Oxymoron Or Good Business?' (2000) 10 Business Ethics Quarterly.