Types of Assignments

Table of Contents

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  • A short piece of writing on a given topic is known as essay.
  • It is important to evaluate the given topic through extensive research.
  • The writer should put his/her opinion after gathering adequate information.
  • It is mainly composed of three parts - Introduction, the main body and the conclusion part.

Format of an essay

  • 10% of the total word count is used to write the introduction of the essay where topic is discussed.
  • For the main body of the essay, 70% to 80% of the total word count is used.
  • For the conclusion part, 10% of the total word count is used.


  • A written account on a particular topic is called a report.
  • A report follows a strict formal structure and is written in a formal tone.
  • It is an organized and formal writing that follows a specific structure. Unlike essay, it is written under several headings and sub headings. A report also includes an executive summary written at the beginning of the report.

Format of a report

  • 10% of the total word count is allotted for the introduction part.
  • The discussion part counts for 70% to 80% of the total word count. This part holds the main theme of the report. The discussion is ended by reaching a particular conclusion.
  • 10% of the word count is used for conclusion.

Research Proposal

  • A research proposal is a concise as well as a coherent summary of the proposed research. This summary is submitted to the University prior to conducting a research. When the proposal is accepted by the professor, the student needs to proceed with the dissertation.

Format of a research proposal-

Chapter 1: Introduction

10% of the total word count is used while writing this chapter. An introduction of the topic is given in this chapter of research proposal. The introduction chapter should include the below mentioned points:

  1. Background of the study
  2. Research Aims and Objectives
  3. Objectives of the study
  4. Research Questions
  5. Problem Statement
  6. Rationale of the study
  7. Research Hypothesis
  8. Proposed Structure of the Study

Chapter 2: Literature Review

Conducting a detail analysis of the existing theories and concepts related to the topic is the main aim of doing the literature review. Literature Review chapter must include the following points:

  1. Introduction
  2. Topic 1
  3. Topic 2
  4. Theories related to the topic
  5. Conceptual framework
  6. Summary of the chapter

It has to be mentioned here that more points and sub-points can be easily included in the literature review section.

Chapter 3: Research Methodology

It tells about the method that the researcher would follow at the time of conducting the research. 20% of the word count is provided in this chapter or the word count division mentioned by the student. This includes the following points:

  1. Introduction
  2. Method Outline
  3. Research Opinion
  4. Research Philosophy
  5. Research Approach
  6. Research Design
  7. Data Collection Process
  8. Sampling Method
  9. Sample Size
  10. Ethical consideration
  11. Limitation of the Study
  12. Summary of the chapter

Chapter 4: Time Table

 A time table is also given by the end of the research proposal. It indicates the approximate time required for conducting each step of the research.


  • Dissertation is the research paper which a writer has to do by examining the topic of the study and reaching to a particular conclusion. A dissertation is usually divided into five or six chapters.

Format of a dissertation-

Chapter 1: Introduction

10% of the total word count is used in this portion and it has the following points:

  1. Background of the study
  2. Research Aims and Objectives
  3. Objectives of the study
  4. Research Questions
  5. Problem Statement
  6. Rationale of the study
  7. Research Hypothesis
  8. Proposed Structure of the Study

Chapter 2: Literature review

20% of the total word count is used. It includes the following points:

  1. Introduction
  2. Topic 1
  3. Topic 2
  4. Theories related to the topic
  5. Conceptual framework
  6. Summary of the chapter

It has to be mentioned here that more points and sub-points can be easily included in the literature review section of dissertation.

Chapter 3: Research Methodology

15% of the total word count is used or the word count mentioned by the student. It includes the following points:

  1. Introduction
  2. Method Outline
  3. Research Opinion
  4. Research Philosophy
  5. Research Approach
  6. Research Design
  7. Data Collection Process
  8. Sampling Method
  9. Sample Size
  10. Ethical Consideration
  11. Limitation of the Study
  12. Summary of the Chapter

Chapter 4: Results

This chapter contains 35% of the total word count and follows the below mentioned structure:

  1. Introduction
  2. Empirical Result
  3. Descriptive Study
  4. Inferential Study
  5. Summary

Chapter 5: Discussion

This chapter counts for 10% of the total word count and has the following points:

  1. Introduction
  2. Discussion
  3. Summary

Chapter 6: Conclusion and Recommendations

The final chapter of dissertation is conclusion and recommendation. The findings are concluded and at the same time recommendations are also given on the issues or problems that have been the research rational or research objectives. 10% of the total word count is to be used. The points to be included here:

  1. Conclusion
  2. Linking with objectives
  3. Recommendations
  4. Limitations of the research
  5. Future scope of the study.

Case Study

  • Case study is a published report about a person or an organization. Usually, an analysis is made on the provided case study and following the instruction of the task, the paper is written.
  • A case study evaluation also consists of three major portions, such as-

Introduction:  Usually 10% of the word count is used in the introduction part

Discussion:  70% to 80% of the total word count is written in this part

Conclusion and recommendation: This part generally consists of 10% to 20% of the total word count.

Question Answers

This is a simple way of doing the task. The questions that are present in the task need to be answered. This is done on the basis of the word count division as it has been instructed. The writer just has to answer each question one after another.

Numerical reports

Tasks that require numerical calculations are called numerical reports. The calculation is done using various tools such as MS- Excel, SPSS or other programs or software mentioned in the instruction.

Format of Numerical Reports-

  • These types of tasks consist of four major divisions, such as:
  • Introduction-10% of the total word count is given
  • Discussion- about 70% in the discussion part
  • Recommendations- 10% in the recommendation part
  • Conclusion- 10% for the conclusion

NOTE: The excel file or the relevant file should be attached along with the report.

Article review

It is a kind of review, so own interpretation is very important while doing these kinds of tasks.

The task is divided into three major portions-

  • Introduction- 10% of total word count
  • Discussion- 80% of the total word count
  • Conclusion- 10% of the total word count is used.


Competency Demonstration Report or CDR refers to technical reports which are used for evaluation of competency and qualification of Engineers who aim to make a career in Australia. CDR incorporates the flowing elements:

  • Three career episodes are describing the knowledge and experience of the candidate.
  • Resume or CV
  • IELTS grades
  • Statement of Summary
  • CPD
  • Academic credentials that should be certified by competent and appropriate authorities and agencies.

You must be aware that preparation of CDR report requires distinct precision since we are helping engineers to have a footing in Down Under concerning their career. Formulation of CDR requires important skills mainly, regarding English aptitude, in-depth knowledge of the major being undertaken. The factual reality is with a large number of applications pouring in every year; the evaluation parameters have become more critical and stringent as compared to previous years.

Every year, a large number of candidature gets rejected owing to the erroneous preparation of CDR and lack of inclusion of necessary requirements in the CDR. In CDR, you ought to provide the aspirants with technical advice along with complete write-up and hence you should be very categorical in the level of English you use, the subject matter and overall consultation based on the client’s request.

Annotated Bibliography
  • An annotated bibliography refers to a collection of citation to articles, books and document.
  • Each segment comprises about 150 words or so which entails over a brief of the topic, descriptive, and annotation.
  • You are advised to inform the reader about the accuracy, relevance and quality of the sources mentioned in the paper. The entire process calls for the application of a range of skills mainly; precise analysis, in-depth research and succinct elucidation of the entire process.
  • You would be better off to search and locate the citations to periodicals, documents, and other relevant items which may contain valuable information on your subject. You are advised to cite articles, book and documents in appropriate style. The citation should be formatted in the bibliographic style and manner as instructed by the university professor. Here, you must be aware that the timeframe to be maintained is from, 2012 to 2016.
  • The most pertinent citation styles are APA, Harvard and MLA. The annotation is inclusive of the following elements:
  • A brief synopsis of the source.
  • Its relevance to another related field of studies.
  • Author’s background.
  • The conclusion.

It is advised that you maintain conformity to the various categories of Annotated Bibliography which should be in clear and precise text underlining the principle objective of the topic given by the student’s university.  

Reflection Paper
  • Reflective papers are personal and subjective in nature which expounds the topic given in the context. Though the opinions expressed in the content are personal that of the author, yet they contain academic tone. Here, you are required to analyze the subject in details, and the write-up must be thorough and cohesively managed.
  • Your sentences should be straight to the point and descriptive. Even though you need to include your personal viewpoint and insights in the paper, they should be in accordance with the given subject.
  • While a reflection paper permits writers to offer their personal feelings against a particular subject and should be drafted in the first person. You must note in this regard that reflective paper should not only express your opinion but also back your judgment with relevant literature review and may have to create arguments in this type of paper. The main takeaway is your opinion and how well you deciphered the subject. You should draft your write-up in such a manner which would arrest the readers’ attention in the given topic or subject. Reflective papers come in essay format which is devoid of any headings or subheadings like Report. You may mention the essential points in bold which will help the reader to take stock of the content included in the Reflective Paper.
Resume Preparation
  • Resume or CV is by far the best and convenient way of making applications. It puts the personal details which present you in the best possible manner.
  • The thumb rule is that there is no best way of preparing Resume. While drafting a Resume, you ought to be specific about the background of the student, his academic credentials and achievement and a brief outline of his personal information.
  • You are advised to treat the Resume by dissecting the entire document into easily readable segments which will enable the reader and employer to interpret the profile of the student at one shot.
  • Make small bullets and short paragraphs in a note structure which will offer a logical layout which contains the logical information of the student that will make it easier for the prospective employer to read and the student may have a better opportunity of making it.
  • The important and relevant aspects of a Resume are as follows:
  • Previous work history
  • Skills and Qualifications
  • Accomplishments
  • Education
  • Objective
  • Personal Information
  • Contact Information
  • Technical Skills

However, you may exclude the references at the Resume unless the requirement demands so. If the requirement asks for referrals, then you may incorporate two referees who should be sufficient. The golden rule is that you are advised to offer tailor-made Resume as a part of our Resume services which may not be identical to what you have prepared for a particular student. You have to alter and modify the entire document regarding career area, thereby highlighting specific areas or skills and experience of the student.

 While drafting numerical report the calculation part should be emphasized on. It is essentially a combination of numerical facet plus reports wherein the later signifies the numerical computations. You are advised to include the calculation segment in the word count. The tools or means of numerical computation should be mentioned in the tools section. You are required to do a thorough research of the particular segment which requires calculation. Here, the report should be customized with abstract being excluded of the total word-count. The introduction should normally be ten percent of the word count granted by the student. In such academic papers, you are required to mention recommendations which form an essential part of the project. The recommendations should form ten percent of the word count. All the computation part should be included in proper tables and structure. You must be aware of the fact that conclusion should be rendered in a separate heading. And the reference part needs to be relevant and be within the period of 2012 to 2016. However, since this is a report wherein, the calculation assumes considerable importance, hence, you are required to attach the Excel File, which contains all the calculation along with the Word document as a working note.


A blog is a frequently updated and upgraded content based  website. It is run and managed by an individual or a group of individuals. Blogs are basically prepared in a lucid and easy tone. Easy and simple language is used in blogs. Such language is informal and conversational. Blogs, therefore, are seen to be a powerful mode of communication.

  • One has to remember that the language used in blogs is simple and informal. Grand and pompous language is not used commonly. The tone of a blog generally depends on the subject or category it deals with.
  • First person and conversational language is used in a blogs.
How to Structure an Effective Blog?

Structure an effective blog is no rocket science and certain factors and points need to be kept in mind while making a blog. Some of them are:

  • Creating an effective and catchy title and headline: To attract reader the first thing needs to be done is to create an interesting title which will compel the audience check the blog at least for once. Presenting ideas by developing bullet points: It can be seen that the ideas and important info nuggets are presented in bullet point format in a blog. Developing sub-heading: Subheads help in disintegrating any post in small easy-to-scan and read sections which ultimately helps readers in getting a quick overview of it.
  • Finding a good representative image is an important aspect while preparing a blog. It is important for a blogger to bear in mind that a good image or graphics has string and a lasting impression on the readers mind.


A poster is source of communication with the public when information is transmitted through piece of paper or electronic sheet. The messages contained on a poster are either graphic or textual. The information contained on a poster could be amalgamation of both. Posters are effective means of communication and are supposed to be informative and attention grabbing source.

How to create a poster

There are certain steps that need to be kept in mind while preparing a poster.

  • Choose a PowerPoint and make a presentation
  • The size of the poster is elected, which will be used for printing
  • Creation of a text box is needed for addition of text
  • After selecting the text box tool or text book, it is important to add text in the text box
  • The main headings are selected in the single slide
  • The main point and a small summary of a point is put under the appropriate headings
  • Selection of correct font size and font color of the font is required
  • Formatting in the presentation is done. It could be in the form of format of text or filing.
  • Images and pictures are added. Spreadsheets and other attachments are also added according to the requirement of the poster.
  • Finally the PowerPoint presentation is required to be converted into JPEJ format or the image format.
Key requirements of a Poster

Some of the key requirements of a poster are:

  • It should be short and concise
  • It should be colorful and attractive
  • A poster should be presentable with attractive images and design
  • A poster should be powerful and descriptive
  • It should be in JPEG format.


A presentation or a slide show comprises of a series of still images and pictures that are displayed on a projector or on a display screen. These images are displayed in a sequence in an automatic way or may be controlled by a presenter.

Steps to create PowerPoint slide
  • Choose the opening slide, which is also known as the title slide
  • Then a new tab file is selected
  • Sample template is selected and from it the appropriate the template is selected. This depends on the type and the concept behind the presentation.
  • The appropriate design is selected based on the type of the presentation.
  • An appropriate theme is selected.
  • The texts are added in the respect slides. Texts and images are added to the slides.
  • The texts are usually added in bullet points and in concise form.
  • Attractive and images are added in the slide. The opening slide contains effective and catchy images.
  • The final slide is a thank you slide
  • All the description and comments are added in the speaker’s/author’s note at the bottom of the slide
  • Slide layout toolbar is used for changing the title of the slides and the presenter can also opt for the default title page in PowerPoint.
Key requirement for a presentation
  • Concise and brief information
  • Presentation of facts in bullet points
  • All comments and description in speaker’s note
  • Attractive and powerful images
  • Thank you slide
  • Images in the opening slide
  • Powerful and attractive presentation of facts.
  • Vibrant and colorful presentation.

Business Plan

A formal statement, which focuses on the organizational goals, strategies and the rationales behind it is called business plan. A business plan focuses on the vision, mission and the goals and objectives of an organization and highlights the various techniques and methodologies available at the disposal of an enterprise. It includes the background information about an enterprise and maybe internally and externally focused. It represented the important goals of the stakeholders.

Structure of a business plan

Executive Summary

An executive summary is made at the beginning of any report. A executive summary is a brief summary of the entire business plan, which sheds critical light on the format and the information contained in the report. Executive summary gives a bird’s eye view of the entire report and is a small brief of the entire report.

The cover page and the table of content is made

The background of the company

The background of the company is given in a business plan. The history, past performance and the key information of the company is presented in the background of the company.

The mission and vision of the company

The mission and vision of the company is given in the report. The mission and vision of the company indicates the long term goal and objectives of the company and hints at the direction where the company intends to head.

Objectives of the company

The goals and objectives of the company is given in the business plan, which hints at the company’s plan of action according to where the company intends to stand.

Industry analysis

Industry analysis is an importance aspect of the business and the analysis if the industrial sector is very importance to highlight the strength or the weakness of the industries.

Business environment analysis

A business environment analysis is important and comprises of two types. They are a) Internal business environment and b) external environment

  • Internal business environment: Internal business environment includes the internal factors that affect the organization. Internal environment analysis tools include McKinsey 7-S and Core competencies.
  • External business environment: External business environment includes the external factors that affect the organization. External environment analysis tools include PESTLE analysis and Porter’s Five Forces.

SWOT analysis

SWOT analysis stands for strength, weakness, opportunity and threat of an organization. A proper evaluation of the strength, weakness, opportunity and threat of an organization is evaluated and understood.

Competitor Analysis

Competitor Analysis is a comparative and evaluation of the competitors’ performances and the competition it posed to an organization.

Market analysis

Market analysis evaluates and assesses the market of a specific product and service and determines the feasibility of the product and service. It analyses various components of the market. 4Ps and 7Ps of marketing mix is undertaken to establish the market mix of a product and service.

Marketing plan

Marketing plan is the strategy and plan of action undertaken by an organization. Marketing plan is the depiction of strategies and plans of an organization, in connection to the marketing objectives of the organization.

Operations Plan

Operations plans depict the strategies and plan of action regarding the main business activities of the organization.

Financial Plan

Financial plan depicts the plan of organization regarding the allocation of fund, spending of the fund and the plans regarding the surplus.

Action Plan

Action plan highlights the activity of the organizations. The milestones are critically highlighted in the action plan.

Database Making

A database is a collection of information in a system that can be altered, accessed, managed and updated. Database is used to create a system where the information and data can be stored and accessed as per the situation. It stores and holds critical information and data that is critical to an organization.

Components of data base

  • Tables- The real data exists here
  • Queries- These are specifications about data and allows users to extract data based on the specification.
  • Forms- Forms are used to make the data entry process easy and systematic
  • Reports- Reports are needed to be designed to print data from the system
  • Pages- Pages are basically data access pages or special type of web pages that is required to view and operate with data from the internet
  • Macros- Macros are a set of one or more actions that perform an operation

Computer data base are comprised of aggregation of data files. Database systems exist in giant mainframe system and also exist in minion workstation. Structured Query Language is used for running and updating data in a system.

Creating a database

Database can be created in the following ways:

  • Blank database
  • Database making using template that is installed with access
  • Database making using template with office.com

Addition and edition of data

  • On creating a database, data, fields, tables etc are added to the database.

Creating a database with a template

  • Click on the file Tab and close the database
  • Choose and select the database
  • Select the folder and the place to store the file
  • Create the file.

Website Designing

 Website designing is the application of skills and discipline required in the production, maintenance and management of a website. It includes web graphic design, adding contents, maintaining search engine optimization, interface design, managing software and using and creating codes.

Tools and technologies used for website designing

  • Use of vector and raster graphic for web designing are used by web designers
  • W3C standards technologies like HTML and CSS are used to create and design websites
  • Testing tools like mark up validators are used for making sure and confirm the conformity of the website to the website standards and guidelines.

Requirements in website designing

  • Having clarity of thought and designing a framework of thoughts.
  • Developing a high level framework to solve all the design related problems and issues.
  • Developing a grid and adding the grid to the Photoshop.
  • A proper typography and typefaces has to be chosen
  • An appropriate color theme has to be chosen
  • Selecting and diving the layout
  • Challenging the thoughts and creating an innovative designs
  • Not overspending much time and energy on one concept or one aspect of website designing
  • Evaluating every component of a design as the final product of the design
  • Improving and amending and editing Photoshop design file.
  • Evaluating and amending the design during the development process
  • Considering and amending the work in progress.
  • Not spending enough and excess time on a concept and design

Stages and process in website designing

Gathering and assembling information

This is the phase one in website designing.  Gathering and assembling of information is an important phase in the website designing. Basic understanding of the purpose of the website designing has to be understood, the organizations for which is to be created has to be evaluated and the description and the information regarding the company has to be evaluated. Certain points have to be kept in mind while creating a web design. These are:

Objectives: Certain points have to be kept in mind regarding the purpose of the creation of the website.

Aims: Certain point regarding what is the website aimed at doing.

Targeted Audience and Viewers: The website designing has to evaluate and assess the type of audience it caters to and the target audience and viewers of the website

Content: The content of the website has to be evaluated as to what kind of information and data would be entered and displayed on the website.

 Planning process

  • Planning process includes evaluating the information assembled
  • Creating a proper plan for the website and development of site map is done
  • Planning of what technologies to be used
  • Evaluation and assessment of content management system.

 Developing and creating designs

  • Designing a proper design for the website.
  • The audience that is targeted is considered during the development and creation of design
  • Developing one or more prototype designs is another key aspect during developing and creating designs
  • Getting views on the design is important. Likes and dislike are an important aspect of website designing.

 Development of web site and web design

  • Development of the website is done during this phase
  • All the individual elements of graphics are gathered and the final and actual graphic design is created for the website
  • The homepage, template and the main structure of the website is made
  • Development of content management system is made
  • Different elements websites are made functional
  • Front web design and technologies are made functional
  • Overall, the design and different elements of a website is amended and made, which ultimately leads to the development of a website.
  • Testing and delivery of websites and elements of a website
  • Complete analysis and testing of the different element of a website is tested.
  • Maintenance process

A legal report is a statement on facts and information regarding legal aspects. Legal report is based on case study, which is relating to legal elements.

What are the elements of a legal report?
  • Facts and information
  • Evaluation of the information
  • Identification of legal issues in the facts and information
  • Arguments for and against the identified issues
  • Conclusion from the arguments
Structure of the elements of a legal report
  • Title page/cover page, which includes the name of the author and the title of the report, name of the client and the date of completion of the project
  • Executive summary (it includes 10% of the total word count of the report). It includes a brief summary of the report. It reflects on the purpose and objective for the report. It highlights the scope of the report. The important findings and results are mentioned in the report. Conclusions and recommendations are provided in the report.
  • Table of content is needed to be prepared to provide the index o the report
  • Introduction to the issue and background information of the case study
  • Body of the report is a portion which succeeded the introduction and background of the case study. The discussion and the results and findings are mentioned in the body for the report. Analysis and factual presentation is made in the body of the report.
  • Conclusions reflect on the main finding and result of the report. It outlines the fact and results of the report and is a short summary of the report.
  • Recommendations are needed to be made from the conclusions and are a justification of what is to be done and how to provide remedy to deviations.
  • Reference List and appendices are an element of a legal report and add extra information to the report.
Tax planning

Tax planning is the analysis of financial goals and strategies in a rational manner. The purpose of tax planning is to help the financial goals work in coordination with the tax policies and standards. Tax planning is needed to reduce the deviations noticed in tax practices by making the financial strategies more coordinated with tax goals and strategies.

Tax planning process    
  • Calculation of tax liability
  • Evaluation and assessment of legal aspects and legal instruments
  • The assessment of income earned and from different sources
  • The extent of tax and the scope of law in it
  • The evaluation of various forms and tax return documents
  • The evaluation of tax deductions
  • The understanding of fringe benefit of that country.
  • The understanding of short term and long term capital gain.
  • Understanding of the business of the organization and examining the books of accounts of the organization.